Long-term use of denosumab in giant cell tumors and vertebral aneurysmal bone cysts.

Abstract

Introduction: Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that binds to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kB (RANKL), it is used in the treatment of Osteoporosis. The Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) and the Aneurysmal Bone Cyst (ABC) use the same RANKL, and for this reason this drug began to be used for its treatment. There is consensus on the use, dose-time and 12-month duration for Denosumab treatment of GCT. Not so for ABC. In unresectable, disabling or recurrent tumors, its use could be for life. The adverse events of the habitual use of the drug are known, but it is not known if these increase with time. The objective of the present work is to identify the possible adverse events of treatment with Denosumab for more than 12 months.

Material and Method: Series of cases with a diagnosis of GCT or ABC in spine, treated with Denosumab for more than 12 months. Adverse events are: arthralgia, fatigue, spinal pain, pain in extremities, headache, hypokalaemia, hypocalcemia, osteonecrosis of the jaw, malignant transformation, pathological fractures. Results: Eight patients, 6 TCG and 2 ABC, with a mean age at diagnosis of 25,6 years; presenting a mean treatment of 4.18 years (range 1.7 – 8.7). Of 6 operated patients, 4 had recurrence (2 to 36 months after surgery). One patient had to suspend treatment due to necrosis of the jaw, another hypocalcemia, both returned to treatment when stabilized.

Conclusions: A minor adverse event (hypocalcemia) and a major adverse event (jaw bone necrosis) were observed. Level of Evidence IV; Original.